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Charles Towne Landing 

sten carefully and you 

"Walk softly in this pi 
will hear the voices from the past. 

>wne, Albemarle Point. 
_..glish speaking Colony in South 
Carolina was founded. 

The year was 1670, Charles II sat on the throne 
of England and the great westward movement was 
writing pages of history. Wooden ships were bring- 
in g men and women of courage to a new world. 

One hundred and fifty of them came here, to this 
point of high ground, and began carving a new life. 

The passage of three centuries dims the history 
of that settlement and its people, but walk these 
shaded pathways and you journey back to another 
place, another time. 

Here, perhaps, a man went out from his rough 
shelter, to hunt or to plow a field. And, perhaps, he 
did not return, for life was hard and nature hostile. 

Here, sheltered within the moss-draped folds of 
the land, the seeds of a free nation were planted 
and nurtured. 

The land tugs at you, calling you back through th 
mists of time. 

Walk softly here. Disturb not the ghosts of thos 

STATE, October 23, 1966) 

For nearly 300 years Old Town Plantation guarded 
the secrets of the first permanent settlement in 
South Carolina — Charles Towne 1670-1680. The 
English settlers who came to Carolina to plant a col- 
ony in 1670 chose this high bluff of land on the west 
bank of the Ashley River because it was protected 
by marshland and a tidal creek. The settlement at 
Charles Towne grew and prospered, but a more 
favorable situation for a town was found at Oyster 
Point, a peninsula at the conjunction of the Ashley 
and Cooper Rivers. In 1680, this new site officially 
became the town of Charles Town, today the pres- 
ent city of Charleston. 

The success of the colony in those first critical 
years attracted great numbers of people from di- 
verse backgrounds and experiences. This rich mixture 
of people created a prosperous and progressive 
society whose wealth was second to none in the 
New World. 

History does not record what happened to the 
original site until the I690's when "old towne plan- 
tation" was granted to James Le Sade. The planta- 
tion remained in private hands through the years, 
protected from residential and commercial develop- 
ment by its owners, until its acquisition and develop- 
ment by the state of South Carolina on the occasion 
of its 300th anniversary in 1970. 


"The ayr is clear and sweet, the countrey very pleasant and 
delightful." — William Hilton, English explorer, in 1663. 

No one knows for sure which European explorer 
first set eyes on the mainland of what we now know 
as North America. Viking ships visited the continent 
in the I Oth century, but there are no historical rec- 
ords of these early visits. The recorded history of the 
first attempts to settle the continent centers on 
that part of the east coast now comprising South 

The first mention of the area was in reports from 
Spanish explorers of the early 16th century. They 
referred to the area as "the land called Chicora," 
its Indian name. The territory was granted by 
Charles V, Emperor of Spain, to Lucas Vasquez de 
Ayllon. Soon thereafter, in 1526, Ayllon established 
San Miguel de Gualdape, the first European settle- 
ment in North America above Mexico. It was situ- 
ated on Waccamaw Neck near present day George- 
town, South Carolina. 

After only nine months, disease, treachery, and 
harsh weather brought death to many, including the 
leader Ayllon, and the colony was abandoned. Only 
about 150 survivors of the original group of 600 re- 
mained alive to return to Hispaniola (present day 
Santo Domingo). Approximately 14 years later, Her- 
nando de Soto marched through the inland region 
of present day South Carolina on his way to the 
Mississippi River. In 1561 another Spanish explorer, 
Angel de Villafane, again explored the coast, but 
left no permanent settlement. 

France, which for some time had been engaged in 
territorial rivalry with Spain, made the second at- 

tempt to settle the North American mainland — also 
in the South Carolina area. In the spring of 1562 
Jean Ribaut touched on the northern Florida coast, 
sailed up the coast of present day Georgia, and 
settled at a spot near present Beaufort, South Car- 
olina. There, he had his men place a stone column 
bearing the arms of France and named the area Port 
Royal. On an island, probably present day Parris 
Island, he built Charlesfort. This was a structure of 
approximately 96 x 78 feet, consisting of "a block- 
house of logs and clay, thatched with straw with a 
ditch around it, with four bastions, and bronze fal- 
conets and six iron culverings therein." Ribaut sailed 
away, leaving about 28 men in charge and planning 
to return in six months with reinforcements. How- 
ever, religious wars in France prevented this. Food 
and morale began to run low at Charlesfort. The 
French settlers left stranded by Ribaut constructed 
a crude ship with the help of local Indians and sailed 
for France, abandoning the settlement. 

Several years later, in 1566, the Spanish under 
Pedro Menendez de Aviles founded St. Augustine 
and sent a small group to the Port Royal area, which 
they renamed Santa Elena. Although this settlement 
was destroyed ten years later by the Indians, the 
Spaniards returned the next year, building Fort San 
Marcos and the town of Santa Elena. This town grew 
rapidly and by 1580 it was reported to have had 
sixty houses. During this twenty-year period of 
Spanish settlement, soldiers such as Juan Pardo ex- 
plored the interior of South Carolina, building block 
houses and leaving behind at least one inscribed 






Spanish efforts to colonize the area of Carolina 
ended when Sir Francis Drake burned St. Augustine 
in 1586 and the settlers of Santa Elena and soldiers 
of San Marcos were moved to St. Augustine to 
strengthen it. Little remains in physical substance or 
direct influence upon South Carolina from these 
early attempted settlements by the Spaniards and 
French. Their significance is the story of efforts, 
failure, and international rivalry which preceded 
the finally successful English settlement of 1670 in 

On the island of Barbados in the West Indies, the 
British established a permanent settlement in 1625. 
Somewhat earlier in 1607, nearly a hundred years 
after the first Spanish attempt to establish a perma- 
nent settlement on the American mainland, the Brit- 
ish founded the colony of Jamestown in Virginia. In 
the next fifty years the British established in quick 
succession colonies from Virginia northward to New 
England. The area between Jamestown, the south- 
ernmost British colony, and St. Augustine, the 
northern outpost of the Spanish colonization on the 
American mainland, finally received attention from 
the British in 1663. It was not until 1670, however, 
that colonists arrived to establish the settlement of 
Charles Towne. 

The unsettled Carolina area had attracted the at- 
tention of dissatisfied English colonists in Barbados 
for some years. Planters there needed more land, 
and religious dissenters wanted a freer atmosphere 
of worship. In August 1663 Captain William Hilton 
sailed from Barbados to find a location in Carolina 
for a proposed settlement by a group of Barbadians. 
In 1666 Robert Sandford also sailed from Barbados 
and explored the Carolina coast. They both wrote 
glowing reports of the country which later helped 
the Lords Proprietors secure English settlers. 

Le Moyne, an artist, accompanied the French expedition of 
1564 to Florida. Over the next twenty years he made a series 
of paintings depicting the scenes he remembered and the 
events of the French expeditions in 1562 and 1564. They were 
engraved by a Flemish engraver, De Bry, and published in 
1591. The illustrations above are copied from De Bry's work. 

Captain William Hilton wrote of Carolina: 

"The lands are laden with large tall oaks, walnut 
and bayes, except facing on the sea it is most pines 
tall and good: The land generally ... is a good soyl, 
covered with black mold . . . with clay underneath 
mixed with sand; and we think may produce any- 
thing as well as most part of the Indies that we 
have seen. 

"The Indians plant in the worst land because they 
cannot cut down the timber in the best, and yet 
have plenty of corn, pompions, water-mellons, musk- 
mellons. Although the land be over grown with 
weeds through their lasinesse, yet they have two or 
three crops of corn a year, as the Indians themselves 
inform us. 

"The countrey abounds with grapes, large figs, 
and peaches; the woods with deer, conies, turkeys, 
quails, curlues, plovers, teile, herons, and as the 
Indians say, in winter with swans, geese, cranes, duck 
and mallard, and innumerable of other waterfowls, 
whose names we know not, which lie in the rivers, 
marshes, and on the sands. 

"Oysters in abundance, with great store of mus- 
cles. . . . The rivers stored plentifully with fish that 
we saw play and leap. 

"There are great marshes, but most as far as we 
saw little worth, except for a root that grows in 
them the Indians make good bread of. 

"The ayr is clear and sweet, the countrey very 
pleasant and delightful. And we could wish that all 
they that want a happy settlement of our English 
nation were well transported thither." 


". . . call it the Province of Carolina." 

— Charles II, 1663 Carolina Charter. 

Charles II of England granted Carolina in 1663 to 
eight men who supported him in his days of exile. 
All of these men were involved in numerous trading 
and colonizing ventures, and they wanted to develop 
Carolina as a commercial enterprise. The "Lords and 
Proprietors" of Carolina included John Lord Berke- 
ley, his brother, Sir William Berkeley, William Earl 
of Craven, Sir George Carteret, and Sir John 
Colleton. Several were men of exceptional ability. 
Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, was Charles ll's 
leading minister. George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, 
was the person most important in restoring him to 
his throne. Anthony Ashley Lord Cooper, later Earl 
of Shaftesbury, wrote the significant habeas corpus 
act and became the chief leader of the effort to 
establish Carolina. 

In issuing the charter, Charles II had said ". . . call 
it the Province of Carolina." The "Carolina" Charles 
II granted was a tract about 350 miles deep and 
2,500 miles wide, reaching from Cape Canaveral to 
Albemarle Sound and stretching from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. 

The Proprietors held the grant for six years with- 
out developing an effective program to start a set- 
tlement. Lord Ashley Cooper took the leadership in 
1669 and soon dominated the affairs of the project. 
The Carolina or Port Royal expedition began to 
take shape. 

Ashley Cooper had his friend and secretary, the 
eminent English philosopher John Locke, draw up a 
system of government called the Fundamental Con- 
stitutions. Although it was never actually accepted 
by the settlers of South Carolina, who had the right 
to reject laws, this remarkable document influenced 
the colony and the policies of the Proprietors. It had 
feudal aspects as well as surprisingly democratic 
ones for its time. 

The Proprietors desired to establish a landed 
aristocracy which would own two-fifths of the land 
and have the titles of Landgrave and Cassique. 
Some men were given the title of Landgrave. (This 
only attempt to establish a titled nobility in Amer- 
ica failed, although a natural aristocracy based on 
land ownership developed.) The remaining three-fifths 
of land were to belong to the people, for Locke and 
Ashley Cooper wanted a "balance of government" 
between aristocracy and democracy. The Constitu- 
tions supported a surprising degree of latitude for 
the colonists in local government and a substantial 
measure of religious toleration. "No person what- 
soever shall disturb, molest, or prosecute another 

for his speculative opinions in religion, or his way 
of worship." 

The Lords Proprietors hoped to enrich themselves 
and to contribute to the greatness of England as 
well. All of these men saw clearly that England's 
future lay in trade. Carolina's importance was not 
only as a real estate development, but also as a 
producer of trade with England. They hoped com- 
modities such as wine, silk, olives, oranges, and rai- 
sins of Southern Europe, North Africa, and the Near 
East could be grown here. For this they needed 
settlers who would become planters. 

Inducements to settle, such as the offer of land 
to individuals, the promise of a voice in their gov- 
ernment, and an atmosphere of religious toleration, 
were offered by the Lords Proprietors in the Funda- 
mental Constitutions and in general provisions. 

Settlers could expect religious toleration that con- 
trasted most favorably with the then almost universal 
intolerance. In government they were to have a Gov- 
ernor and Council appointed from among their own 
number. The colonists were themselves to choose 

Lord Ashley Cooper, later the Earl of Shaftesbury, became 
the chief leader of the effort to establish Carolina. 

members of a General Assembly. Every free man above six- 
teen years old would be given 50 acres of land and a like 
amount for every slave, servant, or member of his family. In- 
dentured servants who had served their terms were to receive 
land in the same manner. 

A promotional pamphlet for "The Province of Carolina," 
issued in 1666, promised opportunity for all new settlers. 
For gentry without estates, artisans seeking a better fortune, 
and even women without husbands, it declared that oppor- 
tunity existed. "Is there therefore any younger Brother who 
is born of gentil blood and yet . . . hath not . . . suitable for- 
tune? Here, with a few Servants and a small Stock a great 
Estate may be raised. . . ." 

Those unable to pay for passage were told, "Let no man 
be troubled at the thoughts of being a Servant for 4 or 5 
years [an indentured servant whose voyage would be paid 
for by a master]. So soon as he is out of his time, he hath 
land and tools, and clothes given him, and is in a way of 

"If any maid or single woman have a desire to go over, 
they will think themselves in the Golden Age, when men paid 
a dowry for their wives, for if they be but civil, and under 
50 years of Age, some honest man or other will purchase 
them for their wives." 

To establish a colony, the Proprietors had not only to in- 
terest settlers in leaving for a new land, but to provide ships, 
equipment, and provisions. Three vessels were purchased and 
refitted at a considerable cost for the voyage. Re-named the 
CAROLINA, a former merchant frigate of about 200 tons 
with sixteen guns was to carry 93 of the 148 settlers. The 
PORT ROYAL was a frigate of only half that tonnage and 
the ALBEMARLE, a sloop or shallop, was 30 tons. Only 
one of these ships, the CAROLINA, was destined to 
reach America. 

The venture was well planned and supplied. The King sent 
twelve cannon. Small arms included 200 French firelocks and 
I 2 suits of armor. Provisions of food for I 8 months were sent, 
but a large portion was lost at sea. 

Careful attention was given to tools and supplies for arti- 
sans. There were six sets of carpenters' and joiners' tools, two 
sets of coopers' tools and one set of smiths' tools. Implements 
also included were a quantity of scythes, hoes, axes, ham- 
mers, saws, and shovels. 

Realizing other items could be gotten through trade with 
the Indians, 240 pounds of glass beads, 300 hatchets, 100 
hoes, four gross of knives, and two gross of "Sizzard" (scis- 
sors) were loaded for bargaining purposes. 

The prosaic details of good planning and ample supplies 
and provisions in large measure account for the success of 
the colony. There were other favoring circumstances. The 
strong connection with the prosperous and well established 
colony of Barbados helped the new undertaking. The colonists 
themselves were a direct and capable sort and they landed 
among friendly Indians who gave a substantial amount of 
practical assistance. 

Wg- £*r&&? 





"From aboard the CAROLINA, 
now riding in the Downs." 

— Joseph West, August, 1669. 

The little fleet of three ships and their passengers that assembled at an an- 
chorage known as "the Downs" off the coast of Dover faced a voyage of some 
7,000 miles and nearly nine months. The best route from England to the new 
world was a roundabout one from Engand down toward the Canary Islands off 
Africa, across the Atlantic to the nearest Caribbean English colony, Barbados, 
then up to the American mainland. Winds and currents favored this route and 
were significant factors in saving time and supplies of food and water. 

From the Dover coast the fleet went to Kinsale, Ireland, in August of 1669. 
Sailing from Kinsale on September 17, they covered the 5,000 miles to Barba- 
dos by late October. Voyages of that time proceeded at rates of between 
two and seven miles per hour, almost utterly dependent upon the winds and 
currents of the open sea. The trip from Barbados to Carolina may have been 
fewer miles, but it would take considerably longer, as it was plagued with haz- 
ards and adverse weather. 

The first mishap began at Barbados where the ALBEMARLE broke its moor- 
ing in a storm and wrecked. Its passengers survived and replaced it with a sloop, 
the THREE BROTHERS. The fleet left Barbados in late November, proceeding 
to the Island of Nevis. There, the group of settlers were joined by Henry Wood- 
ward, a man who was to have a vital influence on the colony and its fortunes. 
Sailing as a young man on Sandford's trip to explore the Carolina coast, he 
remained behind to live with the Indians and learn their language. Before Sand- 
ford left, he gave young Woodward "formall possession of the whole coun- 
try to hold as tennant att will" for the Lords Proprietors. Eventually word of his 
presence in the Port Royal area spread to the Spaniards, who came and took 
him as a captive to St. Augustine. He escaped when the English buccaneer, 
Captain Robert Searle, raided the town in 1688. For a time he sailed the Carib- 
bean as a "Chrurugeon" (surgeon) on a privateer, seeking funds for his passage 
back to England. However, a hurricane wrecked the ship he was on near Nevis. 
He was awaiting passage to England when the Carolina-bound fleet put in 
briefly at Nevis due to bad weather. Woodward guickly joined the group 
headed for Carolina. 

After leaving Nevis in early December, the ships were separated a month 
later by another storm. The CAROLINA put in at Bermuda and the THREE 
BROTHERS at Nansemond River, Virginia. The PORT ROYAL was wrecked on 
reefs near Abaco in the Bahamas after six weeks of wandering. The Captain, 
John Russell, wrote, "Haveinge beene six weeks beating from place to place by 
reason of continuance of foule weather, we. . . were driven to such great want of 
water that wee were all ready to perish." The 44 people aboard reached 
shore, although many died before the Captain could build a new vessel. They 
eventually reached Bermuda, where they acquired a sloop, name unknown, and 
joined the CAROLINA. 

Three weeks after leaving Bermuda, the CAROLINA and the Bermuda sloop 
reached the mainland coast at Bull's Bay in mid-March. On March 21 they 
reached Port Royal, their original destination. Friendly greetings and crafty 
salesmanship awaited the English colonists in 1670. The assistance and good 
feeling of the Indians would not only see the colonists through the first year, 
but would actually influence significantly the site of settlement. 

The Indians conveyed their reaction of friendliness 
and gladness to the English arrival in Spanish phrases, 
saying "Bony Conraro Angles." A quaint account of 
the English settlers' first meeting with Indians when the 
frigate CAROLINA found land at Sewee Bay, now 
Bull's Bay, has been preserved in Nicholas Carteret's 
letter. The following are excerpts from it. 

"Upon [the ship's] approach to the land ... the na- 
tives . . . came towards us whooping in their own tone 
and manner, making signs also where we should best 
land, and when we came ashore they stroaked us on 
the shoulders with their hands, saying "BONY CON- 

Several days later, the colonists visited the mainland 
again. "As we drew to the shore ... a good number of 
Indians appeared, clad with deare skins, having with 
them bows and arrows. . . . The Governor [William 
Sayle] and several others came to the Hutt Pallace of 
his Magesty of the place . . . Here we had nuts and 
root cakes such as their women useily make, as before, 
and watter to drink." 

"While we were here [the Chief's house], his Mag- 
esty's three daughters entered the Pallace all in new 
roabs of new Mosse, with plenty of beads of divers 
collours about their necks. I could not imagine that the 
Savages would so well deport themselves, who coming 
in according to their age and all to salute the 
Strangers, stroaking of them." 

Within two days of the English arrival at Bull's Bay, 
the Indian Cassique of Kiawah (region of the Ashley 

River) arrived and asked the English to settle at Kia- 
wah. (The coastal tribes saw the English as protection 
against hostile Indians.) Failing to persuade them, this 
chief sailed with the colonists to the settlement area 
proposed at Port Royal by the Lords Proprietors. The 
Port Royal Indians rejoiced at the English arrival as pro- 
tection from the feared Westo (a warlike tribe who 
lived inland along the Savannah River and frequently 
raided their less aggressive neighbors on the coast), 
and greeted them with "Hiddy doddy Comorado 
Angles, Westoe Skoyyre." Carteret translated this to 
be "English very good friends, Westos are nought." 

The encouragement of the Port Royal Indians and 
the original plan of the colonists all spoke for their set- 
tling at Port Royal, but the Cassique of Kiawah had a 
different idea. Seeking advantage for his own tribe, 
the Cassique again urged a location on the Kiawah 
(Ashley) River. The arguments of the Cassique of 
Kiawah, bolstered by the support of Henry Woodward 
and the favorable report of an exploratory party 
to his area, determined the location of the Carolina 

In early April of 1670 they landed at Albemarle 
Point on the Kiawah (Ashley) River. On May 23, the 
THREE BROTHERS arrived, after having several pas- 
sengers and crew captured by the Spaniards and In- 
dians on St. Catherine Island below present Savannah. 

Finally, all three vessels landed their passengers. In 
spite of peril, shipwreck, and suffering, these hardy 
people had pressed on toward their original purpose 
of settling Carolina. 


'We i,., Bridge 



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"We thought it most conducing to our safety, to build a 

town ... it being a point with a very convenient landing." 

— Carolina Council to Lords Proprietors, March 27, 1671. 

Those who sailed up the Ashley River in 1670 and 
landed on its west bank chose wisely their place to set- 
tle. The nine acre site of fertile, elevated land was not 
visible to vessels coming in from the sea. Protected by 
an "inaccessible Marshe" on the river side, the steep 
bank of a creek gave protection on the other and a 
good boat landing to the site. The approach from land 
could be closed by a short palisade. 

The colonists themselves first called their settlement 
Abemarle Point, but Lord Ashley, in a letter from Eng- 
land November I, 1670, informed them, "the Towne 
you are now planted on we have named and you are 
to call Charles Towne." 

- Danger from the Spaniards and uncertainty of the 
Indians caused the settlers to keep close together un- 
til more people came. As late as September 1670 
Joseph West wrote that they had taken up only ten 
acres per head near the town. "Settled in the very 
chaps of the Spaniards," the small colony was forced to 
live as much as soldiers as farmers. Governor William 
Sayle, who had joined the settlers in Bermuda, wrote 
of the need for more settlers. These would "conduce 
much to the safety of this place," for the colonists had 
been heavily burdened with keeping watch and build- 
ing defenses. 


Culpepper's map of the first Charles Towne in 1671 from the 
Shaftesbury Papers. 

The first year defense seemed more important to 
the colonists than planting crops. In August of 1670 
friendly Indians warned the council at Charles Towne 
of an approaching large party of Indians under the 
leadership of Spaniards. A fleet of three Spanish ves- 
sels approached and rode outside the harbor entrance. 
The Wando, Etiwan, Kiawah, and Sewee Indians came 
to the colonists' aid. As Stephen Bull reported, "All the 
Indians about us came in with their full strength to our 
ayde." The colonists and their Indian allies were saved 
from fighting by good fortune. The Spanish Indians 
were frightened by the suddent return of the CARO- 
LINA, which had been seeking supplies in Virginia, and 
by the size of the settlers' cannons. A storm drove the 
Spanish fleet out to sea and the expedition returned 
to St. Augustine, ending that attempt to destroy 
the settlement. 

The Proprietors had sent out the Carolina expedi- 
tion well stocked with food and instructed West, "You 
are weekly to deliver ... to every three men — 9 
pounds of beef and 1 4 guarts of pease." But the wreck- 
ing of two out of the three ships on the voyage lost 
most of the provisions. The settlers had been instructed 
to immediently begin growing food crops, but the long 
voyage and the emphasis on defense had caused this 
planting to suffer. The CAROLINA was dispatched to 
Virginia and the sloop to Bermuda the first summer to 
bring back much needed supplies, for the rations had 
gotten as low as a pint of peas per man each day. 

Governor Sayle wrote that "Wee have been put to 
purchase our maintenance from the Indians, and that in 
such small parcles as we could hardly get another sup- 
ply before the former was gone." Stephen Bull wrote 
of the problem in gentler tones to Lord Ashley. "Wee 
found very great assistance from the Indians, who 
shewed themselves very kinde and sould us Provisions 
at very reasonable rates. . . . Otherwise wee must un- 
doubtedly have binn putt to extreme hardshipps." 

It was through the invaluable help of Henry Wood- 
ward that the colony secured the loyality and much 
needed food from the Indians. The colony's Council 
reported in September of 1670, "The doctor hath 
lately been exceedingly useful to us in dealing with the 
Indians for our supplyes who by his means have fur- 
nished us beyond our expectations." 

Henry Woodward, this most singular man, was a 
doctor, adventurer, and pioneer of English expansion in 
the lower South. He developed the trade for animal 
skins with the Indians which was the first consider- 
able source of wealth for the colony. This also involved 
an important series of alliances with Indian nations 
throughout the lower South. Woodward, in combina- 
tion with Joseph West, the most capable leader of the 
early years, was largely responsible for the success of 
the infant colony. 

The main business of the colony was to develop 
plantations, growing goods for trade with England. The 
Carolina expedition came with very careful and de- 
tailed instructions to experiment with and find the 
plants and crops most suited for this new land. They 
were to do no more than experiment with different 
plants until "you have sufficiently provided for ye belly 
by planting store provision." Ice, an inch thick the first 
winter, killed many of the plants. However, planted 
again the following year many fared better and would 
in time become important commercial crops, such as 
rice, indigo, and later cotton. 

This agricultural experimenting was to be done on a 
tract of land outside the town set aside as a plantation 
for the Proprietors. West wrote he had cleared thirty 
acres, built houses for himself and the indentured 
servants of the Proprietors, and palisades fit to hold 
against a thousand Indians. This was located across the 
creek and marsh south of the Landing site. A bridge 
connected it to the village area. 

Despite the glowing advertisements and the favora- 
ble letters the settlers wrote home, hardships abounded 
and growth was slow. Supplies of all sorts were running 
low, especially clothing. The fears of a cold winter were 
right, "I have seen ice about an inch thick of one night's 
freezing butt not snow. . . ." Fortunately sickness was 
not a major problem, for during the first summer only 
four deaths were reported from "distempers". In the 
spring the need for more settlers was helped by the 
arrival of 106 people from Barbados. 

The first Governor, William Sayle, died in March 
when 81 years old. Joseph West was named Acting 
Governor by the settlers' Council. 

The spring of 1671 found the colony facing its sec- 
ond year with reasonably encouraging prospects. The 
friendship of the Indians had been secured and the 
lucrative trade with them for skins begun. Lumbering 
had become the basis of a profitable commerce with 
the West Indies. Land for sufficient planting had been 
cleared. The Barbadian settlers formed a helpful bond 
with prosperous West Indian colonies. A new English 
community, the southern frontier of the English colo- 
nies, had been established. 


"industrious and ingenious persons . . . willing to partake of the 

Felicities of this Country." 

— Robert Home, A Brief Description of the Province of Carolina. 

During the first ten years Charles Towne survived a 
precarious and painful struggle for mere existence and 
developed into a growing and important colony. 

The best description of the infant colony was pro- 
vided by a Spanish agent who reported on the settle- 
ment in May or June of 1672. Camunas, a soldier in 
St. Augustine, was sent openly by the Spanish Gov- 
ernor of Florida with letters for the English Governor, 
but with secret instructions to observe the English set- 
tlement. The following descriptions are taken from the 
report Camunas made as sent to Spain by the Span- 
ish Governor. 

"The place where they have the village built is a 
wooded village consisting of dwelling houses without 
having any formal streets although he could count 
about ninety houses, some higher than others appar- 
ently according to the means of each individual. And 
in this same tract they have their fields of maize, 
pumpkins, cow-peas, peas and in each house their trel- 
lises for grape vines of different sorts. And also a great 
quantity of sweet potatoes and some fig trees. 

"And from the village along the edge of the river 
some houses continue', all of wood and disposed with 

much regularity, until one comes near the fort. . . . 
Inside of this fortification there are some lodgings and 
others of the same sort outside of it which, as he was 
informed, were buiit at first when they began to settle 
for fear of the Indians. 

"He saw in the settlement about two hundred and 
fifty men who could bear arms without an additional 
number who were working in the plantations of maize 
and other crops, and also many others who went out 
in launches to fish for turtle and fish, that he could not 
tell whether he had seen them all or not, without an- 
other number of over a hundred Negroes, all of whom 
bear arms in the shape of shot-guns and cutlasses as 
this deponent saw in an alarm which was given them 
by some Indian warriors. 

"It appeared to him that ships and frigates of good 
burden could enter [the harbor] because he saw an out- 
rigger with yards which was about to sail for the island 
of Barbados whence they receive what they need in 
the way of food and other necessities. Also saw an- 
other ship, a new one which they have in the shipyard 
and which they will finish very soon. The Governor told 
him that the ship was being built for him and that he 
was also expecting from Barbados his fleet of ships in 
which more people were coming to them, both men 
and women, clothes and what else was needed as well 
as supplies and cattle of all sorts for stock." 

He also saw from a distance that Oyster Point (the 
peninsula on which modern Charleston is located) was 
being settled. 

"They are settling a wooded 'island' [Oyster Point] 
which is surrounded by two arms of rivers. On this 
island there is apparently a settlement of English 
people because there may be seen some guantity of 
houses, some high and others low; and he saw that they 
were living in this island and had about twenty 
launches. He heard it said that they were removing 
stumps and clearing away the woods in order to build 
a fort on it because of its being on the passage and 
port by which the ships enter." 

The population grew slowly at first. At the begin- 
ning of 1672, 337 men, 71 women, and 62 children had 
arrived, according to the secretary of the colony. Of 
these, 43 men, two women, and three children were 
dead and 16 missing or absent. Maps show the settlers 
spreading out along the waterways, taking up land to 
plant. At first white indentured servants composed a 
major part of the population. These, subjected to pub- 
lic whipping to enforce discipline and labor, served 
terms of servitude running to seven years. This inden- 
tured labor was augmented, and later surpassed, by 
Negro slaves and attempts at Indian slavery. 

Unfortunately the Indians soon had reason to regret 
their enthusiasm for the English, and the colonists like- 

wise began to differ with the Indians. Abuses devel- 
oped in trade with the Indians, and they in turn began 
to steal corn, hogs, and poultry from outlying planta- 
tions. By the fall of 1671 the period of harmony ended 
as a "warr" effort was made against the tribes living 
to the south of Charles Towne. 

The Indians, unmindful of destroying each other, 
were willing to fight for the Europeans against other 
tribes. Henry Woodward formed an alliance in the fall 
of 1674 with the Westo Indians living inland on the 
Savannah River. This was the same tribe the coastal 
Indians had originally sought the English settlement 
to protect them against. For several years this alliance 
was the cornerstone of Charles Towne's Indian rela- 
tions. With guns supplied by Woodward, the Westos 
made destructive raids against the Spanish missions in 
Georgia. It was the beginning of a buffer system 
against the Spanish and French based on Indian alli- 
ances and trade, which would expand by 1700 to the 
Mississippi River. 

Since the Proprietors had sought profit as their 
motive for financing the settling of Carolina, their in- 
terests and those of the settlers guickly developed into 
conflict. Instructions from England were full of remind- 
ers to keep for the Proprietors the best land and rich- 
est part of the Indian trade, and to keep strict account 
of the debts of the settlers for advances on supplies 

and equipment at eight or ten per cent interest. The 
Proprietors were considerably distraught to learn that 
one of the first acts of the Carolina colony had been 
to send a ship's load of lumber to Barbados with the 
colonists receiving all of the return and the Proprie- 
tors none. 

The Proprietors had good reason to be concerned. 
They had invested heavily in the Carolina expedition 
and later in support of the colony. For this outlay of 
funds they received scant return. Even Lord Ashley, as 
the years of meager income piled up, joined the 
threats to stop all further help to those "idlers living 
at our expense." By 1679 the Proprietors had spent 
£ 18,000 (possibly as much as a million dollars in cur- 
rent value) for little more than "vexation and poverty." 
Eventually the mutual displeasure, caused by abuse 
and neglect from both sides, would change Carolina 
into a royal colony. Nevertheless, the successful begin- 
nings of the Charles Towne Colony rested upon good 
planning and support by the Lords Proprietors. 

Large, productive plantations could not develop at 
once in a wilderness. Lumber and forest products were 
the first items exported for a return. The beginnings 
of an Indian trade, developed by Henry Woodward, 
were underway. From 1670-1680 the bulk of the trade 
occurred between Carolina and Barbados for neces- 
sities. Timber, barrel staves, and tobacco were ex- 

changed for sugar, rum, molasses, other food supplies, 
and needed items. 

Settlers from Barbados came to be a significant part 
of the population. The Barbadians included many of 
the strongest and most capable personalities. These 
men, experienced colonists and planters confident from 
their success in the older colony, would be a powerful 
influence on the developing Carolina colony. 

The government of the young settlement consisted 
of the Governor, appointed by the Proprietors, the 
Grand Council, and the popularly elected Parliament 
of twenty members. Elections for the Parliament were 
by ballot. It is thought that since the settlers' first elec- 
tion in 1670, all elections in South Carolina have been 
by ballot, a method not used by the people of Eng- 
land until two centuries later. 

Conflict and political infighting were not strangers 
to the early colony. Disturbances had been led by the 
Surveyor General Culpepper, Captain Grey, and 
others. These had to flee or were banished. Political 
factions intensified when Sir John Yeamans pushed out 
Joseph West for a period as Governor. 

Despite frequent shortages of provisions and tools, 
trouble from the Indians, fear of the Spaniards, and 
the internal political problems, the colony by 1680 had 
grown to number about 1,100. In the next two years 
its population would double. Carolina was at last a 
firmly established and growing colony. 

Gascoynes' adaptation of Maurice Mathewes' Map of Charlc 
the water routes. 

Towne, 1682, which shows how the settlers had spread out along 



"Few [colonies] have, in the space of a hundred years, improved 
and flourished in an equal degree." 

—Alexander Hewat, 1779. 

In the spring of 1680 the colony moved its town site 
across the Ashley River. There, on Oyster Point, the 
second Charles Towne took shape. This tongue of land 
between the Ashley and Cooper Rivers had been re- 
served soon after the settlers arrived in 1670 to be 
the permanent site of the town when the colony grew 
stronger. The peninsular commanded both rivers for 
access and defense and had good anchorage. The old 
village, though not completely abandoned, became 
known as "Old Charles Towne" or simply "Old Town." 

The small colony spreading out from Charles Towne 
(the spelling was not changed to Charleston until after 
the Revolution), was destined to be come one of the 
most important and wealthiest in British America. Dur- 
ing the I 680's and afterward it grew rapidly. It would 
find its wealth, as the Proprietors had envisioned, by 
trade based on the products of the land. However, 
trade with the Indians for animal skins, especially deer 

skins, brought the first significant money and estab- 
lished the colony economically. 

As the colonists exported skins, barrel staves, pitch, 
tar, and other naval stores, as well as beef and lumber, 
the search continued for a money earning staple crop. 
The experimenting done with oranges, ginger, grapes, 
olives, figs, and other plants produced no bonaza crop. 
Hope for the potential of silk production saw a gover- 
nor name his plantation "Silk Hope," and the Lords 
Proprietors commissioned a Huguenot settlement to 
experiment with silk and wine production. A more aptly 
named plantation became "Rice Hope." 

Rice seed came to Charles Towne from Madagascar 
and slightly later from India. Rice production reached 
significant quantities in the I690's. In the first seven 
months of 1700, 300 tons went to England and 30 to 
the West Indies. From then it increased rapidly to be 
a magnificent crop for the next two centuries. At first 
rice was cultivated in inland fresh water swamps. Later 
its culture moved onto land flooded by fresh water 
from tidal streams. 

Dangers and troubles abounded for the Charles 
Towne colony. Fighting between St. Augustine and 
Charles Towne, done through their Indian allies, set the 
stage for direct fighting between 1702-1706. Charles 
Towne was by then a walled city, the only one in Eng- 
lish North America. Disease in the form of small pox 
took a fearful toll from 1697-99. In February of 1698 
a fire, the first of many to come, put a third of Charles 
Towne in ashes. A plague killed many cattle and an 
earthguake terrorized the inhabitants. In the early fall 
of 1699 yellow fever made its first frightening visita- 
tion, killing at least 160 people in the town. Later that 
fall a hurricane flooded the town, forcing people to 
the upper stories and sinking a shipload of immigrants 
approaching the harbor. 

Among the new immigrants to Carolina who poured 
in after 1680 were the French Huguenots. The Hugue- 
nots made an impact on South Carolina far out of pro- 
portion to the number that actually came. These exiles, 
attracted to South Carolina by the policy of religious 
freedom, were welcomed for the skills which they 
brought. Most were capable artisans or farmers. Some 
few were of the lower nobility, but basically their aris- 
tocracy was of worth rather than blood. Despite the 
desperate poverty in which most arrived, they were 
soon self-sustaining. Through their moral and in- 
tellectual fiber they exercised significant influence on 
the colony. 

The colony had begun with an official policy of re- 
ligious tolerance. This was reflected in the founding of 
many non-Anglican groups in the I680's and 1690's. 
By I 702 the colony was 45 per cent Presbyterian, 42 
per cent Anglican, 10 per cent Baptist, and two and 
one half per cent Quaker. Many of the early governors 
had been Dissenters. In the Church Act of I 706, the 
Anglican Church did become the established church, 
but Dissenters were allowed to be in the Assembly and 
have other privileges. 

Life in the young colony, though existing in constant 
contact with the harsh realities of a new and wilderness 
world, began to reflect attention to the finer points of 
living. Schools and libraries claimed public and private 
attention and funds. The Anglican parochial library set 
up in 1698 was immediately enlarged by the Assem- 
bly to a "public library." This is the first known instance 
of government support for a library in the future 
United States. The free school acts of 1710 and 1712 
provided for the education of a few students at pub- 
lic expense with those that were able paying fees. A 
school at Goose Creek in 1712 was teaching I 7 whites, 
two Indians, and one Negro. Although many schools 
and tutors would function in colonial South Carolina, a 
college would not be established because those families 
with the financial means preferred to send their sons 
"back" to England to the universities and law schools. 

The Act of 1712 created a comprehensive law code. A 
society which thought itself English was becoming es- 
tablished on the edge of the frontier. 

The Indians of the southeast supposedly in alli- 
ance with South Carolina in 1715 numbered some 27,- 
000, of these 9,000 were men. Abuses by the traders 
among them and resentment of the Indians near the 
colonists over having their lands taken led to the 
bloody and involved Yamassee War of 1715-17. The 
colonists, with the aid of the Cherokee who joined 
them as allies, finally subdued the uprising. 

By 1718 attention in Charles Towne was focused on 
the serious and mammouth threat posed by the pirates. 
They played havoc with the now valuable cargoes 
coming and going from the city. They even captured 
prominent citizens and held them for ransom. The col- 
ony undertook a major and effective campaign against 
them. One month, November of 1718, saw 49 pirates 
hanged in Charles Towne. In the face of such deter- 
mined repression piracy ceased to be a menace. 

In 1719 the Commons House led a political revolu- 
tion in the colony to overthrow the Proporietors and 
petitioned the crown to make South Carolina a royal 
colony. Ten years later this was made official. 

Almost from the beginning of Carolina it became 
customary to refer to a "South" and a "North" Caro- 
lina. Administratively, geographically, and economic- 
ally there were always two separate entities. The terms 
began appearing in legal documents in the late I 600's. 
In I 735 a survey was ordered to divide the two, but it 
was 1815, long after the Carolinas were states, that 
final ratification was given the boundary. 

! &&&JA ' ■ 


Illustration of a slave working, probably on indigo, from William 
DeBrahm's 1750 map of South Carolina. 

South Carolina in the half-century leading to the 
Revolution became an expanded and diverse colony. 
In the Low Country the society became probably the 
most wealthy and sophisticated in British North Amer- 
ica. Charles Towne, supported by the plantation coun- 
tryside, became a major city of British America with 
close ties to England. Away from the coastal region, 
small plantations, townships, and frontier homesteads 
developed as the colony grew. 

By the I 730's, South Carolina had become a mature, 
stable colony, which was ready to expand. A plan for 
settling nine townships located in a buffer-like semi- 
circle sixty or more miles inland from Charles Towne 
was developed. The immigrants who came were poor 
protestants from Europe and settlers from the North- 
ern colonies. Some evolved a planters' society; others 
remained artisans, mechanics, or small farmers. Into the 
back country beyond the townships the Ulster Scots or 
Scotch-Irish came to settle. Their vigorous energy and 
self-reliance made them well suited to settle the fron- 
tier. Their numbers became significant in the mid-to- 
later- 1 700's when, "in one of the mightiest migrations 
in colonial times," they made their way down from 
Pennsylvania through the valleys of Virginia and North 
Carolina along the "Great Wagon Road." The town- 
ships and the influx of settlers into the back country 
began a transformation in the extent and nature of 
South Carolina. Charles Towne would remain the domi- 
nant power within the province, but the Up Country 
would struggle to assert itself. 

On the eve of the American Revolution South Car- 
olina was a diverse mixture of frontier farmers and 
prosperous planters and merchants. To the early Eng- 
lishmen, Barbadians, and Huguenots, and the growing 
number of African slaves, had been added the Ger- 
mans, Swiss, Scots, French, and Welsh of the townships 
and the Scotch-Irish of the back country. 

The Revolution in South Carolina would be a bloody 
civil conflict. Those Carolinians of all classes and geo- 
graphic areas who wanted independence would fight 
those who still favored ties with England. It was no 
accident that here, where some of the strongest push 
for independence was shown and where also deep cul- 
tural and economic ties existed with England, it should 
be a civil conflict. In South Carolina the Revolution 
would number more engagements, 137 presently 
counted, and the expense per capita would be greater 
than in any other colony. The Revolution saw the ma- 
ture colony of South Carolina, which, although settled 
late, had rapidly developed in a century to become a 
young state. 

The Edward Crisp 1704 map of Charles Towne showing it as a 
walled city. 

The Lords Proprietors' plantation in 1671. Here Joseph West conducted the agricultural experimentation and resided as Proprietors' 
agent and later as Governor. 


The present exposition park of Charles Towne Land- 
ing encompasses approximately 200 acres of high 
ground bordered on two sides by marshland and on 
the south by Old Town Creek. Once the site of the 
first permanent settlement of Carolina, the Landing 
exists today in the very heart of burgeoning metropoli- 
tan Charleston. Since the late seventeenth century 
when the official site of the town was changed, the 
area has been known as Old Town Plantation. That 
it has never been developed as residential property is 
due in large measure to its owners who have preserved 
the natural beauty of the site of the 1670 settlement. 

As the state of South Carolina began its plans for 
development of Charles Towne Landing in 1968, one 
of the most serious problems facing the planners was 
the infestation of insects that plagues all coastal land 
adjacent to the marshlands. The problem was given to 
a committee representing the South Carolina Board of 
Health, the Marine Resources of South Carolina, and 
the Entomology Department of Clemson University. 
The program devised by this group has experienced 
definite success in controlling the mosguito and deerfly, 
while maintaining an ecological balance in the area. 

Today, the ten-acre area fortified by the settlers in 
the first year of settlement has been located and par- 
tially reconstructed by archaeologists. Near the en- 
trance to the 1670 fortified area, a full scale recon- 
struction trading ketch of the seventeenth century, the 
ADVENTURE, is moored in Old Town Creek. Visitors 
may board the ADVENTURE and see the area where 
the cargo was stored and the sleeping quarters for 
the crew. 

For a period of time, the settlers lived within the 
fortified area, but Charles Towne soon extended much 

beyond the original fortified boundaries on the tip of 
Albemarle Point. Where houses and farming plots once 
stood, eighty acres of beautiful gardens now exist 
landscaped by former owners. Seven miles of bike and 
walk trails expose thousands of visitors each year to 
the quiet beauty of the landscaped gardens, the seren- 
ity of the marshland, and the natural beauty of the 
wooded areas. Twenty acres of the woodlands have 
been adapted for the Animal Forest, a unique display 
of animals which gives visitors a chance to see the wild- 
life that lived in Carolina in the I600's in their natural 
habitats. In the Animal Forest, bison, timber wolves, 
and other wild animals live undisturbed. 

For many who visit the Landing for the first time and 
return again and again, the magic of its attraction re- 
mains the abundance of natural beauty. The feelings 
experienced remind the visitor of the awe and wonder 
experienced by the settlers as they explored the virgin 
areas of Carolina. 

The exposition and service buildings have all been 
constructed in an area that does not intrude upon the 
natural beauty of the gardens and historic area. The 
movie, "Carolina," filmed on location in South Caro- 
lina and shown on a regular basis at the Charles Towne 
Landing theater, recreates the voyage of the settlers 
in 1670 and sets the mood for visiting the site of the 
first settlement. The exhibits in the pavilion tell the 
story of the colonial period and the accomplishments 
of the settlers. A snack bar, gift shop and restroom 
facility complete the development of the park to date, 
but the potential for future development is great. 
Plans are underway for additional attractions designed 
to make the learning of history an unique recreational 
experience never to be forgotten. 


Situated on a high point of ground, in approxi- 
mately the same area chosen several hundred years 
ago by a group of Indians for a ceremonial center, is 
the exhibit pavilion. Here the story of Carolina's first 
hundred years as an American colony is exhibited 
through a variety of media. To give tangible evi- 
dence to this part of Carolina's history, important 
artifacts have been selected for display in combina- 
tion with illustrative materials, film, and sound. The 
exhibit area was so designed that even the most 
hurried visitor will take with him new and stimulat- 
ing impressions of the colonial period. 

The circular ramp leading to the lower level sur- 
rounds large wrought iron reproductions of the coats 
of arms of the eight Lords Proprietors, the men who 
owned and governed Carolina for nearly half of the 
colonial period until the colony came under royal jur- 
isdiction in 1729. 

Through the exhibits on the lower level, the history 
of Carolina is traced from the austerity of the first 
years of settlement to the wealth and sophistication 
of the established colony. The rapid change from 
exhibits concerned with the pioneering period of the 
first decades in the Low-Country to the exhibits on 
the prosperous and thriving colony of merchants and 
farmers will remind the visitor that this transition 
took less than fifty years. 

The early success of the colony was due in large 
measure to the dreams and industriousness of the 
people who came to Carolina. Representing diverse 
backgrounds, they all came to create a new and bet- 
ter life for themselves in a land whose favorable soil 
and climate promised much. The exhibits illustrate 
how these early settlers struggled to adapt to this 
strange land and provide for themselves in the midst 
of the wilderness. 

The land of Carolina was found to be good for 
many crops from the very beginning, and the set- 
tlers worked hard to find staple crops that could be 
exported in great quantities. The profits from the 
trade in animal skins brought in by the Indians pro- 
vided the first major source of revenue for the col- 
ony, but the land yielded products that soon pro- 
duced even greater wealth. 

Although many crops grew well in Carolina soil, 
rice and indigo and later cotton found the most 
favorable markets. The large scale production of 
these products dictated a plantation system with its 
need for a large labor force. With the planta- 
tion system came a way of life that lasted through 
the mid-nineteenth century and left an indelible 
stamp upon the character of the state. The exhibits 
on rice and indigo and cotton combine illustrations 
showing the cultivation of each with actual imple- 
ments used. 

The flora and fauna supported by the land are 
represented through the works of Mark Catesby, 
the most important naturalist in America until Audu- 
bon. Catesby worked in South Carolina in the early 
I 700's and published his Natural History of Caro- 
lina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, in 1732. 

The wealth that poured into the colony from the 
highly successful combination of trade and agricul- 
ture resulted in the highest per capita income in the 
colonies. Charleston, the center of trading activities 
in Carolina, became in essence a "city state" domi- 
nating the political and cultural mores of the colony. 
Edmund Burke said of Charleston that "it ap- 
proaches more nearly to the social refinement of a 
great European capital" than any other American 
city. A New Englander, Josiah Quincy described 
Charleston in 1773 by saying, "in general, that in 
grandeur, splendor of buildings, decorations, equip- 
ages, numbers, shippings, and indeed in almost ever- 
thing, it far surpasses all I ever saw or ever expected 
to see in America." 

The love of things English dominated the taste of 
colonial South Carolina. Whatever was the fashion 

in London soon became that of Charleston. Caro- 
linians imported most of their fine items from Eng- 
land or copied English styles. 

Ever pleasure-conscious, Charleston supported the 
theater, opera, and horse-racing. The city became a 
strong center of music, and the first subscription 
musical society in America was established there. 
Excerpts from the sort of music enjoyed by Caro- 
linians can be heard in the "sound pods." Chamber 
music, opera, and Negro spirituals, are among the 

Fine items that were either imported from Eng- 
land or produced by Charleston artisans are on dis- 
play as examples of the wealth and sophistocation of 
taste in the colonial period. Accompanying these 
terns are illustrations on large moving belts and 
lluminated panals. A special element of the exhibit 
s the animated map showing the migration patterns 
n the state and the development of transportation. 
Large wall murals accompany the exhibits, adding 
yet another dimension to the total audio-visual 
effect and giving the visitor a rare experience in 
the reviewing of history. 


The first experimental farm ever established in 
America for the purpose of improving agriculture 
was begun at Charles Towne in 1670, the first year 
of settlement. The owners of Carolina, the eight 
Lords and Proprietors, wanted an agricultural colony 
of plantations producing staple crops for export. 

"Planting is both our design and your interest . . .," 
they wrote to their agent Joseph West. In order to 
determine which crops were suitable for Carolina 
soil and climate, they gave to West explicit instruc- 
tions for the planting of an experimental farm before 
he left England. 

"Mr. West, God sending you safe to Barbados, 
you are there to furnish yourself with cotton seed, 
Indigo seed, ginger roots . . . also you may in another 
tubb carry some canes planted for a tryall, alsoe of 
ye several sorts of vines of that Island and some 
olive sets." They further instructed him to select 
acreage for their plantation and the experimental 
farm on one side of town, and they stipulated that 
this land should have varying types of soil . . . "by 
which means, you will come to find which soil agrees 
best with every specie planted and what is the 
properest time to plant in." 

They went on to say that West would have only 
a man or two to help him with his experiments and 
that the rest of the people would be employed 
planting Indian corn, beans, peas, turnips, carrots, 
and potatoes with the advice of the Indians. 

In the first few months the crops fared very well. 
Governor Sayle wrote in the summer of 1670, 
"There is nothing that wee plant, but it thrives very 

In September, Stephen Bull reported that he had 
planted trees of oranges, lemons, limes, "pome- 
grainetts and ffigg trees and they like the ground 
and thrive and fflourishe very bravely." The opti- 
mism of the first few months was dampened when 
many of the experimental crops were killed by the 
severe winter of the first year. 

The early settlers were less interested in the 
experiments that they might have been because of 
the natural products that could be easily obtained 
and shipped out. Lumber products and animal 
skins brought the first wealth to the colony. But 
the experimenting with crops continued throughout 
the colonial period. By 1699 great volumes of rice 
were being exported. Indigo, though planted the 
first year, was not successful until the I 740's when 
Eliza Lucas succeeded in growing the crop and pro- 
ducing the dye. The great dreams of wine and silk 
production never materialized although the growing 

of grapes and mulberry trees was successful. Caro- 
lina exported over thirty marketable items, includ- 
ing oranges, corn and peas, but none could compete 
with the profits from rice and indigo. 

The 1670 Experimental Crop Garden at Charles 
Towne Landing is a living exhibit of the plants grown 
during the colonial period and includes those plants 
grown by Joseph West in the experimental garden 
in 1670. Among the plants that can be found grow- 
ing in season in the Crop Garden are sea island 
cotton, rice, bene (or seseme), tobacco, and indigo. 
Peaches, citrus fruits, winter wheat, flax, and herbs 
are included. The Experimental Crop Garden was 
iniatially designed by Clemson University, an insti- 
tution that has continued the tradition of agricul- 
tural experimentation in South Carolina. Students of 
horticulture at the Berkeiey-Charleston-Dorchester 
County Technical Education Center plan and main- 
tain the garden each year. 


° ft 


In October 1968 the Institute of Archaeology 
and Anthropology of the University of South Caro- 
lina was supported by the South Carolina Tricen- 
tennial Commission in conducting a study at Old 
Town Plantation, in order to locate and identify 
any remains of the 1670-1680 English settlement, 
Charles Towne, and to submit recommendations for 
the interpretation and development of the site. 

Prior to the archaeologists' work, an exhaustive 
study had been made of all known information re- 
corded at the time of the founding of the town. 
This material was obtained from three principal 
sources: the Culpepper Map of 1671, the earliest 
map of the town; the Shaftesbury Papers, a collec- 
tion of letters and reports from the settlers and the 
Lords Proprietors; and reports and statements ob- 
tained from spies from the Spanish city of Saint 
Augustine, the North American stronghold of Eng- 

land's colonial rival. These last documents had been 
preserved in the Spanish archives at Seville. 

Using the information from these early docu- 
ments, the archaeologists began to search for clues 
in order to piece together the story of the settle- 
ment in 1670. The archaeologist on the site was 
Stanley South, assisted by John Combes. Following 
the preliminary work, full scale excavation was begun 
by Mr. South in the spring of 1969 and continued 
for seven and one-half months. History unfolded as 
the archaeologists with the assistance of high school 
and college students continued their search for tell- 
tale evidence of walls, ditches, fires, post-holes, and 
artifacts. As they dug out the protective ditches, 
they uncovered 17th century nails, pipes, pottery 
fragments, gunflints, and musketb'alls. The Indian 
beads and pottery contemporary with the settle- 
ment gave evidence to the Indian trade. In other 
areas they found clothing hooks, hinges, china, and 
a fragment of armor, all indicating the 17th century 
occupancy of the area. 

From the early letters it was known that an area 
of ten acres had been enclosed the first year. The 
palisade described by the settlers extended 50 yards 
across the narrow neck of Albemarle Point, running 
from the Ashley River Marsh on the east to a finger 
of Old Town Creek on the west. No traces of a pali- 
sade were found in this area, but digging deep 
beneath the plowed surface in the adjacent area to 
the north, the archaeologists found a vein of dark 
brown humus soil, an indication of a ditch that had 
been filled in. The ditch found appeared to coin- 
cide with the north property lines on the 1671 Cul- 
pepper Map. 

The report prepared by Camunas described the 
fortification as being a wall of heavy logs about 
seven feet tall. This palisade wall was reconstructed 
by the archaeologists on the low earthen parapet 
behind the shallow ditches separating the peninsula 
from the higher ground to the north and northwest. 

Along the southern edge of the site facing Old 
Town Creek, a ditch or moat about eight feet deep 
and some 400 yards long was found that stretched 
across the tip of the peninsula connecting the marsh 
on either side. Just as it is believed the early settlers 
did, the archaeologists removed the earth from the 
ditch and placed it beside the ditch to form a wall 
or parapet about seven feet high. Although ac- 
counts vary, the number of embrasures cut for the 
artillery pieces (sakers and demi-culverins) was based 
on the report by Camunas, who counted twenty- 
eight pieces of artillery, twelve of which were pointed 
towards the river. 

The ^archaeologists' excavations and present pali- 
sade enclose more than ten acres on the peninsula, 
but the area between the palisade wall on the north 
and the moat and earthen parapet on the south is 
approximately ten acres. This fact, in addition to the 
seventeenth century artifacts found in both ditches, 
led the archaeologists to deduce that this was part 
of the defensive fortification built in the first year 
of settlement. 

In the following months settlers continued to come 
to Carolina, and the settlement at Charles Towne 
extended its boundaries. In 1672 Camunas stated 
that the village existed outside the fortified area, 
but that there were no formal streets. 

Inside the fortifications, he noticed only crude 
lodgings which had been built when the settlers first 
arrived. To date, no records have been found tc 
show size, quality, or material used for any of the 
buildings of Charles Towne. The evidence seems tc 
indicate that it was a scattered settlement, irregu- 
larly laid out, and not densely populated. No actual 
house foundations or wells were found by the archae- 
ologists, but extensive work was not carried out 
beyond the fortification ditches. Perhaps future 
archaeology will reveal a house foundation from the 
first settlement. 

The opened ditches and parapets on the site to- 
day represent the fortified area in the 1670-1672 
period. In 1672, the same year that Camunas visited 
Charles Towne, the original bounds of the fortified 
area were expanded and the surveyor was ordered 
to lay out a new palisade. As the settlers continued 
to pour into the new colony, the need for a better 
situation for the town became acute. 

Finally in 1679, the decision was made to move 
the town proper to the peninsula called "Oyster 
Point" at the conjunction of the two rivers, the Ash- 
ley and the Cooper. The fine natural harbor and the 
unobstructed view of the sea there made it a logical 
choice. Governor William Sayle had reserved it as 
the site of a future town as early as I 670. 

Streets were laid out and a fortifying wall begun. 
Then in 1680 when the population had grown to 
approximately 1,100 people, "Oyster Point" offi- 
cially became the site of Charles Towne. The land 
where the "old town" had existed was consolidated 
eventually into a plantation known as Old Town 

Archaeological excavations at Old Town Planta- 
tion were not confined to the site of the 1670-1672 
fortified area. The archaeologists did preliminary 
studies of an eighteenth century plantation house, 
the Horry-Lucas House, and they also found evi- 
dence of Indian habitation dating from 4000 B.C. 

The ruins of the Horry-Lucas House were identi- 
fied as the home built about 1780 by Elias and Eliza- 
beth Horry. In 1835 the property was conveyed to 
Jonathan Lucas. From the ruins, the archaeologists 
know that the house burned sometimes afterwards. 
All that is left of the Horry-Lucas House is the base- 
ment floor, part of the steps, and a brick and plaster 
bathtub which is a very unique feature of houses of 
this period. 

Baked clay objects (balls and discs) dating from 
2500 B.C. and projectile points dating from 4000 
B.C. were found as the archaeologists searched for 
English artifacts of the seventeenth century. Possibly 
the baked clay objects were used as boiling stones 
for cooking food in pits. 

The most significant early Indian remains were 
found as the archaeologists surveyed the site chosen 
for the exhibit pavilion. Remains of postholes and 
many Indian burials were found. Further excavation 
revealed an area roughly 200 feet square enclosed 
by palisade walls. There were indications that the 
palisade wall had been rebuilt twice after the origi- 
nal construction. Post holes also outlined a circular 
structure measuring 32 feet across which protected 
the entrance. Inside the enclosed area a central 
building was suggested by the evidence of post 
holes. In the same area similar evidence indicated 
corn cribs or small sheds. The central building may 
have been a temple and the small sheds used for 
religious purposes. In addition to a number of 
burials, the archaeologists found interesting exam- 
ples of pottery in excellent condition identified as 
the Pee Dee and dating probably from the six- 
teenth century. Some of the pottery is on exhibit in 
the pavilion. 

The archaeological work done in 1969 raised 
almost as many questions as it answered. Evidence 
of two tar-kilns, a number of grape vineyards along 
with the Indian artifacts were uncovered as they 
worked on the site of the first permanent settlement. 
Further studies are being conducted in the hopes of 
finding more and more evidence of the Indian occu- 
pation of the area and of the 1670 settlement. 


Loaded with colonists and supplies, the "shipp 
Carolina friggatt," the ship PORT ROYAL, and the 
sloop or shallop the ALBEMARLE, reached Barba- 
dos from England by November 1669. But soon 
after the ALBEMARLE was wrecked by a hurricane 
at Nevis and the PORT ROYAL at Abaco in the 
Bahamas. Their passengers were later brought to 
Carolina in replacement vessels. The CAROLINA, 
the only ship to complete the entire voyage, reached 
the coast of Carolina in March, 1670 and finally 
landed at Charles Towne, Albemarle Point, in April 
of 1670. 

A beautifully hand-crafted model of the CARO- 
LINA, the largest of the three vessels, is a perma- 
nent exhibit in the Charles Towne Landing pavilion. 
An exhaustive research was carried out by William 
Avery Baker, N.A., for the design of the model; Erik 
A.R. Ronnberg, Jr., of South Dartmouth, Massachu- 
setts, did the construction. 

A scale of 1/2 i ncn f° r the model was agreed upon 
as that size would allow the rigging to be repro- 
duced in true scale throughout. Research failed to 

document the exact tonnage of the CAROLINA, 
but the cost of purchase and outfitting as well as an in- 
ventory have been preserved. From these and other 
known factors, Mr. Baker estimated the tonnage to 
be approximately 240 tons. Rather than use average 
dimensions, the CAROLINA was built using the di- 
mensions of a merchant ship built in England in 1676 
whose tonnage was 229 tons. The length of the keel 
was given as 76' 4" and the breath to the outside 
of the planking as 23' 9". 

The hull up to the water line was carved from a 
block of wood, but above that the model was 
planked as on a real ship. The lion figurehead and 
all other decorations were carved separately and 
applied to the basic structure. The CAROLINA car- 
ries a total of I 6 mounted guns. 

Erik A.R. Ronnberg, Jr., the son of a Swedish sea 
captain, is at present the curator of a major marine 
museum. Mr. Baker is a noted naval architect of 
Hingham, Massachusetts. His private design work 
includes the full-scale reconstructions of MAY- 
FLOWER II and the ADVENTURE, a 17th century 
trading ketch moored at Charles Towne Landing. 


The ADVENTURE, a full-scale reproduction trad- 
ing ketch of the late seventeenth century, was built 
for Charles Towne Landing to dramatize the trad- 
ing activities of colonial South Carolina. Vessels 
similar to the ADVENTURE traded extensively along 
the eastern coast and with the colonies in the West 
Indies. Laden with lumber products, animal skins, 
beef, and tobacco, trading vessels left the port of 
Charles Towne returning weeks later with rum, sugar, 
and other commodities. With an average speed of 
three knots, the 2500 mile trip to Barbados took 
from two to six weeks depending upon the weather. 

The name "Adventure" was chosen from among 
the popular names for trading vessels of that period. 
The vessel was researched and designed by the re- 
nowned naval architect, William Avery Baker, NA, 
and built in Cambridge, Maryland, by James B. 
Richardson. Totally hand-built, the ADVENTURE 
took Mr. Richardson some ten months to complete. 
Had the ADVENTURE been built in South Carolina 
in the late 1 7th century, completion would have 
taken the settlers from one and one half to two 

The ADVENTURE, a rather large ketch of the 
period, is 53 feet long, 15 feet wide, and draws ap- 

proximately six feet of water. Woods indigenous to 
Carolina were used throughout: the framing and 
planking are of oak and the decks and interior are 
of pine. The fir mainmast, which was once the mast 
for a World War I schooner, extends upwards for 
67 feet and carries two square sails. The mizzen 
mast has a lateen sail. (In keeping with tradition, 
coins were placed under both masts for good luck.) 
The vessel also carries a stay sail and a jib. Below 
are sleeping quarters for the crew which averaged 
six men. 

Approximately twenty tons of cargo can be car- 
ried in the hold of the ADVENTURE. The floor 
boards are loose so that the weight of the ballast 
can be regulated according to the amount to cargo. 
(Many cobblestone streets in Charleston were made 
from discarded ballast.) 

A small canoe or punt was towed along to take 
cargo and crew to shore if the ketch could not get 
close enough to unload. The punt tied to the AD- 
VENTURE was constructed by Mr. Richardson from 
a 500 year old cypress log. It weighs 1400 lbs. and 
draws about two feet of water. Both the punt and 
the ADVENTURE are seaworthy and have been 
sailed several times in Charleston Harbor. 


Charles Towne Landing's Animal Forest is a unique 
approach to the display of wildlife, as the anirrrals 
indigenous to Carolina three hundred years ago are 
displayed in a natural habitat wildlife area. Designed 
by Jim Fowler, one of America's best known wildlife 
authorities, the 20 acre forest contains winding trails 
and pathways that take the visitors through an 
ecologically correct habitat in which the wildlife is 
seen in its natural setting. There are no (zoo-type) 
obstructions between viewers and animals, and en- 
closures are hardly visible. In the words of Jim 
Fowler, one of the purposes of the forest is to "cre- 
ate interest, respect, and understanding of the ani- 
mal's role in nature and a desire to protect it from 

Many of the animals in the forest are seldom seen 
by today's urban, dwellers. In the small animal habi- 
tats, designed to resemble the settlers back yards, 
raccoons sleep in the top of trees while red foxes 
play about on the ground below. Not far away, an- 
other nocturnal animal, the bobcat, sleeps away the 
day perched on his favorite limb. In other areas, 
bison, deer, and elk graze undisturbed by the pres- 
ence of man. For today's visitor, a walk through the 
Animal Forest offers an opportunity for involvement 
in nature, an experience too seldom enjoyed in to- 
day's world. 

To hear the howl of the large timber wolves or to 
see the puma sharpening his claws on an aged oak, 
brings to mind the feelings of wonder or fear that 
the settlers experienced as they found these animals 
in the woods near their homes. In 1670, Florence 
O'Sullivan wrote to the Lords Proprietors from 
Charles Towne that, "The Country proves good be- 
yond expectations and abounds in all things as good 
Oake, Ash, Deare Turkies, partridges, rabbits, tur- 
tle and fish . ..." A later description to the Lords 
written in March 1671 by an avid outdoorsman 
spoke of the wonders of the forests. "It would ravish 
(sic) a man to heare in the morning ye various notes 
and ye chanting Harmonious sounds w ch these dainty 
Wing'd creatures soe delicately warble forth in ye 
Aire. And for hunting here is pleasure enough mixt 
w th something of profitt. The woods are full of 
Deare, hares, Connys & divers other beasts worth 
looking after. Good turtelling in time of yeare .... 
Yet we are something in feare of ye Wolves w ch are 
too plenty." 

An act of 1690 required of Indians, "one woolfes, 
tygers or bears or two catt skinns" yearly. Too mind- 
ful of protecting their cattle, hogs, sheep and goats 
to consider the ecological value of the animals, the 

colonists passed acts "to encourage destroying 
beasts of prey," promising money for every "wolf, 
Tyger bear or catt." Killing for bounties or for the 
fur trade eventually extirpated Bison, elk, wolves, 
beaver, puma and deer from Carolina. (The area has 
since been repopulated with deer and beaver.) 

A walk through the Animal Forest reminds the 
visitor of the great variety of wildlife that no longer 
inhabits South Carolina. Buffalo ranged this area 
only through the I770's. The last elk was reportedly 
killed in South Carolina in Fairfield County, while 
wolves and mountain lions were eradicated in South 
Carolina by about 1850. Although no mountain lions 
have been captured and preserved in recent years, 
reports of seeing these big cats continue to center 
around the Savannah River Basin. 

Many animals known to have existed in the 1670 
period receive no mention in the early descriptions, 
but the drawings of the Frenchman, Jacques Le 
Moyne, in the I 500's picture elk and alligators often. 
Logan in his History of the Upper Country of South 
Carolina lists panthers, buffalo, and elk as animals 
remembered by the older inhabitants of the area. 
An old pioneer is quoted by Logan as saying 
he counted buffalo herds of a hundred animals graz- 
ing in the Abbeville and Edgefield area. 

The birds of colonial South Carolina came in for 
special attentions from early ornithologists. (The 
birds recorded in colonial South Carolina by Mark 
Catesby for his work, A Natural History of Carolina, 
Florida, and the Bahama Islands, were used by Lin- 
naeus to describe North American birds.) Early 
accounts from the settlers refer to turkeys, geese, 
cranes, herons, curlews, pigeons, turtle doves, part- 
ridge, and parakeets. (The parakeets refer to the 
Carolina Parakeet, now extinct.) Many early accounts 
tell of the domestication of cranes by the Indians. 

Jim Fowler, of the Wild Kingdom TV series fame, 
developed the unique design of Charles Towne 
Landing's Animal Forest. After years of working 
with animals and studying their habits, Fowler is well 
qualified to design this type of display. In addition 
to co-hosting the award-winning Wild Kingdom 
series, he is associated with the Explorers Club 
and the World Center for Exploration, and is on the 
Board of Directors of the Lincoln Park Zoo in 


Over three centuries have passed since Charles 
Towne and Carolina were settled. The small point of 
land on the west bank of the Ashley River which saw 
the first landing and settlement of the English colo- 
nists in 1670 was deserted after ten years time, as 
the growing colony moved across the river to the 
peninsula called "Oyster Point." The "old town" 
site returned to woods and fields and has remained 
virtually undisturbed ever since. 

Today the site of the first Charles Towne exists 
in the midst of a large metropolitan area; but in the 
guiet beauty of the garden area, a visitor feels re- 
moved from the pace of twentieth century life. The 
carefully landscaped gardens represent the lifetime 
work of Mrs. Joseph I. Waring, whose family, the 
Legares, acguired Old Town Plantation in the mid- 
nineteenth century. The historically significant plan- 
tation was sold to the state of South Carolina in 
1968 for public use and. continued preservation. 

The area that was once Charles Towne has been 
known as Old Town Plantation since the 1690's when 
it was granted to James LeSade. Since that time it 
has been owned by Cartwrights, Branfords, Horrys, 
Lucases, and most recently the Legares. The story of 
Mrs. Waring's determined efforts to improve and 
preserve the property adds to the magic of its his- 
tory. When she inherited the property in the 1930's, 
she immediately began the project which would 
realize her ambition of developing her birthplace 
and girlhood home. Her plan was to enhance the 
natural beauty of the plantation in the hopes that 
some day it would be open for public enjoyment. 

Working tirelessly to reclaim the land from the 
overgrown wilderness, she created beautiful lagoons 
from the marshlands, built causeways and roads, re- 
stored her family home, and planted the garden 
area. To help finance her project, she ran an egg 
business and grew flower bulbs commercially. 

Over the years she planted more than 200 live 
oak trees, approximately 1,000 camellias, and as 
many azaleas. Pampas grass, palmettos, crepe myrtle, 
and tea olives are among the plants included in the 
many varieties of plants and trees that now form 
one of America's most beautiful English park gar- 
dens. All of the plants were placed at Old Town by 
Mrs. Waring with the exception of the largest 
camellias, which were planted by her father, Con- 
gressman George Seabrook Legare, and the mag- 
nificent ancient oaks. These large oaks are several 
hundred years old and were undoubtedly living when 
the English colonists arrived. 

Seven miles of bicycle and walk trails afford access 
to the eighty acres of landscaped gardens as well 

as to the wooded area and surrounding marshlands. 
Along the way, visitors are often treated to glimpses 
of the beautiful egrets and ibis, two of the many 
types of shorebirds that are attracted to the park. 
Occasionally a lazy alligator or a group of turtles 
may be seen sunning on the bank. Touring cars 
(guide driven) are also available for leisurely rides 
through the garden area, once the site of settlers' 

The Spanish spy, Camunas, reported in 1672 that 
there were some ninety houses in the village, but no 
formal streets. No evidence of these houses has 
been found to date, but the archaeological work at 
Charles Towne Landing is continuing. There are few 
contemporary descriptions of the town extant and 
these few are vague. None of the existing letters or 
records mention the exact location of any building 
or describe the size or materials used. The only map 
known to have been prepared of Charles Towne was 
done in 1671 by John Culpepper, a surveyor. Cul- 
pepper included town lots, but on the reguest of the 
Council at Charles Towne in June 1672 these lots 
were turned in by the owners and new ones were 
issued. On Culpepper's map, a four-acre tract to the 
northwest of the town was laid out for a churchyard 
by Governor William Sayle and also in that area, a 
sixteen-acre area for himself. This area has been 
identified as the land to the west of the Warings" 
home stretching to "Peter's Landing," which was 
named for a Negro slave who fished from that point 
for many years. Whether or not Sayle ever built a 
home on this point is not known, as he died in the 
same year that Culpepper's map was being done. 
A century later the slave settlement or "street", as 
the double row of houses was often called, existed 
in this same general area. 

Two house foundations have been located in the 
present park. One of these appears to have been 
built about 1690 and may have belonged to the 
first owner of Old Town Plantation, James LeSade. 
The basement floor is all that is left of the second 
structure, once an imposing plantation house built 
in the I780's by Elias Horry. 

The house now occupied by Dr. and Mrs. Waring 
was built before her great-grandparents purchased 
the property in the I 860's, but the house has been 
renovated and enlarged by the Warings in recent 
years. The smaller house near the Warings' home 
was given to the county of Charleston by Mrs. War- 
ing's father to be used as a school house, probably 
the first public school in the county. Later it was 
renovated as a private residence. 

Old Town Plantation has known many enterpriz- 
ing owners. Evidence of early vineyards located by 
the archaeologists probably date from the colonial 
period when the large-scale production of wine was 
a dream for many that never became profitable. The 
remains of two tar kilns have also been found, remi- 
niscent of a time when South Carolina was one of 
the world's largest producers of tar, pitch, and resin. 
In the nineteenth century, Mrs. Waring's grand- 
father, Edward Thomas Legare, operated a large 
dairy farm on Old Town Plantation. In the area 
where the pavilion and administrative buildings now 
stand were once the chicken houses built by Mrs. 
Waring for her egg business. 

The history of the Low Country and Carolina is 
interwoven into the history of Old Town Plantation. 
For thousands of years before the Europeans set- 
tled the area, various Indian groups had lived on 
this land. As plans were made to build the exhibit 
pavilion, the archaeologists uncovered the site of an 
Indian ceremonial center that existed for about 30 
years in the sixteenth century. During the American 
Revolution, this site was chosen by the British for the 
placement of an artillery redoubt to guard the Ash- 
ley River during the seige of the city of Charleston 
in 1780-1781. The remains of this redoubt were 
found just outside the 1670 fortified area. The fan- 
shaped structure would have held a large piece of 
artillery on a platform on the top. 

For so much to have happened in one small area 
seems incredible, but the real miracle of Old Town 
Plantation is that it has remained intact, when all 
the surrounding lands were being carved up for de- 
velopments. The credit for its preservation belongs 
to Dr. and Mrs. Waring. To the thousands who come 
to Charles Towne Landing annually, the beauty of 
the park will remain a tribute to their foresight 
and determination. 


Due to problems of time, certain aspects of the 
overall plans for the development of Charles Towne 
Landing were unable to be realized prior to the 
end of the Tricentennial celebration year. The Tri- 
centennial Commission is turning back to the state 
of South Carolina remaining funds in the hopes that 
some of these plans will be carried out. 

Among the plans is the projected bell tower 
which will rise almost a hundred feet above the ma- 
jestic oaks of the gardens. A carillon of 36 bronze 
bells hung between three pilasters of the tower is 
being made by the Van Bergen Company of Green- 
wood, South Carolina. The Van Bergen firm is one 
of the few companies left in the United States that 
still manufactures true bell carillons. 

Another projected long range plan will be the 
restoration of the Governor's Plantation. The Tri- 
centennial Commission began considerable research 
towards the realization of this goal and laid the 
groundwork for the possible completion of the proj- 
ect by 1976, the United States Bicentennial year. 


Thomas O. Lawton, Jr., Chairman 
Joseph H. McGee, Vice-Chairman 

W. Wright Bryan Thomas H. Pope 
Anne Springs Close Laura J. Quattlebaum 

Wayne W. Freeman George C. Rogers, Jr. 
T. Edmond Garrison Robert B. Scarborough 

Rufus W. Gosnell Eleanore Smith 

W. Brantley Harvey, Jr. Harvey S. Teal 

T. C. Hooper Thomas E. Thornhill 

J. M. Lesesne, Jr. John C. Williams, Jr. 
T. Travis Medlock Eugene N. Zeigler 

Maceo Nance, Jr. 

James M. Barnett, Executive Director 


General Manager Jim P. Demos 

Assistant Manager James B. Plair 

Assistant to the Manager Lucia L. Harrison 

Assistant to the Manager Virginia E. Cleveland 

Chief of Security Jerry Lamberth 

Bookkeeper Zonie Ruff 

Secretary Delia Sellman 

Superintendent of the Grounds Neal E. Colvard 
Superintendent of Buildings Earl J. Colvard 



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